This practice dates back to the mid-nineteenth century, but pinpointing the initial response is difficult. Numerous of these items are currently available. The Merck Index, a massive authoritative compendium of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and biologicals, contains important named reactions.
The named chemical reactions that are common in today’s world play an important role in organic chemistry, and they are referred to as ‘reactions’ in this article. Recent research has revealed that organic chemistry is becoming increasingly capable of producing chemical compounds that are more complex and diverse in structure and composition. It is becoming increasingly important for this advancement to be based on named chemical reactions.
Chemical reactions that are named after the individual who discovered or originated them are known as eponymous reactions. Important named reactions that are well-known have been named after important people throughout history.
In the twentieth century, scientists began to link the names of people who discovered or produced synthetically valuable chemical processes with the persons responsible. In this way, scientists could remember these reactions more efficiently by utilising mnemonic techniques related to the names of their discoverers.
A-List Of The Most Important Organic Chemistry Reactions By Name
- Aldol Condensation – Aldol When two molecules of an aldehyde or two molecules of ketones condense in the presence of a dilute alkali, the result is the formation of hydroxy aldehyde or hydroxy ketone, depending on the case.
- Balz-Schiemann Reaction – The Balz-Schiemann Reaction is employed in the process of attempting to synthesise fluorobenzene.
- Cannizzaro Reaction – One molecule of aldehyde is converted to carboxylic acid. In contrast, another aldehyde molecule is converted to alcohol, resulting in the formation of acetic acid in the Cannizzaro reaction.
- Carbylamine Reaction – The carbylamine reaction (also known as the ethanolic potassium hydroxide reaction) occurs in the presence of aliphatic or aromatic primary amines. This process is referred to as the carbylamine reaction in scientific literature.
- Clemmensen Reduction Reaction – The Clemmensen reduction procedure involves reducing the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones to the equivalent hydrocarbon by reacting with zinc amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid and then using the resulting hydrocarbon to make other organic compounds.
- Friedel Crafts Alkylation Reaction – A reaction in which an aromatic chemical reacts with an alkyl halide in the presence of a Friedel Crafts catalyst results in alkylbenzene, which is a by-product of the reaction (AlCl3).
- Friedel Crafts Acylation Reaction – An acylation reaction in the presence of a Friedel Crafts catalyst yields monoacyl aromatic compounds by combining an acylating agent with an aromatic material in the presence of the catalyst.
- Finkelstein Reaction – The Finkelstein Reaction occurs when alkyl chloride or alkyl bromide combines with sodium iodide in dry acetone, and the product is sodium iodide. This reaction gets used to produce alkyl iodides in organic compounds, which are helpful for various applications.
- Fittig Reaction – When aryl halides react with metallic sodium in the presence of dry ether, the first product formed is biphenyl, which is then converted into other compounds. The Fittig Reaction is the term that is used to describe this particular chemical reaction.
- Gattermann Reaction – Aromatic ring compounds such as aromatic halides and aromatic aldehydes, among other things, are synthesised with the help of this chemical compound.
- Hoffmann Bromamide Degradation Reaction – The Hoffmann bromamide degradation process, an amide reacts with bromine and an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to produce a primary amine. It is known as the Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction.
- Hofmann Elimination Reaction – It is known as the Hofmann elimination reaction because it is a reaction that results in the formation of tertiary amines and alkenes in an aqueous solution.
- Kolbe’s Reaction – Kolbe’s Reaction, which involves using phenol, sodium hydroxide, and carbon dioxide, can produce 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid, depending on the application.
- Mannich Reaction – In the Mannich Reaction, when 1° or 2° amine/ammonia reacts with non-enolisable aldehydes and enolisable carbonyl compounds, the product is Mannich base, which can then be used to make a variety of other compounds.
- Perkin Reaction – Cinnamic acids must be synthesised through the Perkin Reaction, which must be carried out to do so. The aldol condensation reaction results in -unsaturated aromatic acid as a by-product of the reaction.
- Rosenmund Reduction Reaction – Using a palladium-barium sulphate catalyst in the Rosenmund Reduction Reaction is required for acyl chloride to be hydrogenated and converted to aldehyde as a byproduct of the reaction in this reaction.
- Reimer–Tiemann Reaction – Sodium hydroxide must be present for the Reimer–Tiemann reaction to occur. When phenol reacts with chloroform, an aldehyde group is formed on the ortho position of the ring, resulting in the formation of an aldehyde group.
- Stephen Reaction – In the presence of hydrogen chloride, the Stephen Reaction can produce imine hydrochloride. This reaction occurs when nitrile reacts with SnCl2 in the presence of hydrogen chloride. Aldehyde is formed due to the hydrolysis of imine hydrochloride, which occurs in the presence of water.
- Swartz Reaction – A halogen exchange reaction, known as the Swartz reaction in some circles, occurs when one of the reactants is an alkyl halide and the other is an alkene (one of the reactants).
- Sandmeyer Reaction – As a result of the Sandmeyer reaction, which begins with the diazotisation product diazonium salt as a starting material, aryl halides can be produced in various forms.
- Wurtz Reaction – For more specifics on the Wurtz Reaction, a coupling reaction occurs when two alkyl halides react with sodium to form a new alkane compound.
- Wolff Kishner Reduction Reaction – As a result of this reaction, the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones reacts with hydrazine to form hydrazine. It is subsequently reduced back to the CH2 group when heated with sodium hydroxide in boiling ethylene glycol.
Observe and document all of the essential characteristics of the critical named reactions, as previously described. You should get acquainted with the name reactions – a list of crucial name reactions in Organic Chemistry and the components that make it up to do well on the test—achieving high marks.